Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Egg Production in Relation to Fish Reproductive Strategies

Thursday, August 21, 2014: 9:00 AM
303B (Centre des congrès de Québec // Québec City Convention Centre)
Richard McBride , Northeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Woods Hole, MA
Stylianos Somarakis , Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Gary R Fitzhugh , Southeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Panama City, FL
Anu Albert , Estonian Marine Institute, Tartu, Estonia
Nathalia Yaragina , Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Murmansk, Russia
Mark J. Wuenschel , Northeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Woods Hole, MA
Alexandre Alonso-Fernández , Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, IIM-CSIC, Vigo, Spain
Gualtiero Basilone , IAMC-CNR UOS of Torretta Granitola, Mazara del Vallo, Italy
Fish spawning frequency varies from daily to once in a lifetime. Some species spawn and feed in separate areas, during different seasons, by storing energy and drawing on it later for reproduction (i.e. capital breeding). Other species spawn using energy acquired locally, throughout a prolonged spawning season, allocating energy directly to reproduction (i.e. income breeding). Capital breeders tend to ovulate all at once and are more common at boreal latitudes where productivity varies seasonally. Income breeding allows small fish to overcome allometric constraints on egg production and respond to current conditions; ceasing egg production when food is in short supply and resuming quickly when conditions improve. Many species exhibit mixed capital- and income breeding patterns, suggesting that breeding patterns are a conditional reproductive strategy that allows females to prioritize their own condition over their propagules’ condition at any given spawning opportunity, thereby expending energy cautiously to maximize lifetime reproductive value. Poor-feeding environments can lead to delayed maturation, skipped spawning, fewer spawning events per season or fewer eggs produced per event. In a few cases, variations in feeding environments appear to affect recruitment variability. These findings have implications for temporal and spatial sampling designs, and for interpreting fishery and ecosystem assessments.