Protecting Fish at Cooling Water Intakes: Recent Advances in 316(b) Science

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a final rule implementing §316(b) of the Clean Water Act on August 15, 2014.  This regulatory action targets reductions in mortality associated with the impingement and entrainment of fish and shellfish at cooling water intakes, and affects over 1,000 facilities (power plants, pulp and paper mills, iron mills, chemical plants, oil & gas facilities) throughout the U.S. that use cooling water. For successful implementation, the industries, federal and state regulatory and resource agencies, non-governmental organizations and the public will all need the latest information on technologies and supporting data for protecting fish and shellfish at cooling water intakes – including traveling water screens, velocity caps, intake velocity, barrier nets, behavioral systems, closed-cycle cooling systems, and other methods for reducing, excluding or collecting and returning fish and shellfish to source waterbodies. Information will also be needed on methods for characterizing impingement and entrainment and for determining the performance of technologies.  Methods for economic analysis to determine the cost-benefit for compliance activities may also be needed.
Douglas A. Dixon, Jon Black, Terry E. Cheek, Chuck Coutant, Ronald Heun, William Dey and Daniel Giza
Douglas A. Dixon and Jon Black
Jon Black, Terry E. Cheek, Chuck Coutant, Ronald Heun, William Dey, Daniel Giza and Douglas A. Dixon
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